Foot and Ankle Surgery

Hallux Valgus (Bunion Deformity)

hallux valgus bunion deformity


Hallux Valgus Bunion Deformity is charecterized with bony prominence in the inner site of the first ray. Bony bump is prominent at the joint level with toe deviated laterally in valgus position. When the bursa over bony bump is inflammated, the bunion is more prominent and painfull. Frequently, rest and ice application alleviate the imflammation symptoms like redness, swelling, and pain.

hallux valgus bunion deformity

It has been believed by most, pointed narrow shoes with high heels might cause Hallux Valgus deformity. Studies show that 90 % of women prefer high heel narrow nice looking shoes. As a consequence, incidence seen in women is 3 times more than men. The most common age is between 30-40 years.

However, Hallux valgus can also be seen in women preferring large, comfortable shoes. Also, two thirds of the bunion patients have family history for Hallux Valgus.

Hallux valgus is also seen in patients with pes planus, cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis and gut arthropathy.

Diagnosis of hallux valgus bunion deformity

Even though, hallux valgus can easily be diagnosed clinically, radiological examination is crucial to analyze the deformity  type to plan he proper treatment modality.

Unfortunately, it is shown that the conservative treatment is unable to reverse the deformity. However, it is possible to relieve the symptoms and complaints with conservative treatment. Conservative treatment modalities are as follows: preferring large, comfortable shoes, hallux valgus night and day splints, medial longitudinal arch supports particularly in patients with

Hallux Valgus deformity can  be corrected with surgical treatment. There are tens of surgical techniques.  For best correction, it is extremely important to select the correct surgical technique. So that best result can be achieved.

Both bony and soft tissue surgical techniques have been described and used in the treatment of Hallux Valgus. Surgery type is  selected according to  the type and level of the deformity. Foot and Ankle surgeon may pick the surgery type depending on his training and experience as well.

Preoperative and postoperative x-rays

Preoperative and postoperative clinical apperance in a patient underwent surgical treatment

In some patients, first and second metatarsals are largely seperated that a proximal bony correctios is required as shown below:


If patient has osteoarthritis in the joint then first metatarsophalengeal fusion is preferred as illustrated below.

Will I feel extreme pain following surgery?

As it is well-known that, the most painful period is the first couple days after surgery. For that reason, we apply ankle block anesthesia in all patients to eliminate postoperative pain experienced in early postoperative days.

How long will I stay in hospital?

Even most patients are discharged at the same day, Some patients may stay in hospital for a day.

When will I start to walk again?

Most of the patients may walk with special shoes and on their heels 2-3 hours after surgery.


Different Hallux Valgus Shoes

Will my foot develop the deformity again, Is there a recurrence in Hallux Valgus?

With proper treatment

Is the general anesthesia essential?

Not necessarily. Eventhough general anesthesia can be used, most cases are performed with ankle block aneshesia or epidural anesthesia.








The material contained on the web page is for general informational purposes only and is not intended neither to be a substitute for professional medical advice nor to be used for medical diagnosis or treatment.

Please consult with Your physician or other healthcare professional for medical advice.

About the author

Prof.Dr. Seref Aktas