Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors

Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

It is an aggressive benign bone tumor. Giant cell tumor, often seen in adult patients between the ages of 20-40. It is very rare among children with open growth plates and patients over the age of 65.

Which bones is the disease can be seen?

The tumors is settled at the end of the bones. The most common involvement sites are  close to the lower end of femoral bone, the upper end of the tibia. However, the long bones of the wrist, hip and knee areas close to the jjoints, vertebrae and  pelvic bones can be involved.

What causes Giant cell tumor of bone?

Whether trauma and  family history may cause the tumor is unknown. Likewise, diet and enviromental factors do not have a role in tumor development.

What are the clinical signs of giant cell tumor of the bone?

Pain is the most prominent complaint. In the early stages, pain is increased with activity decreases with rest while in more severe stages pain is felt even at rest. Patients feel pain and limitation in motion in adjacent joints. Patients with fractures also have the additional fracture symptoms.

What is the structure of the giant cell tumor?

Giant cells can be visualized under microscopic examination. Eventhough a few giant cells can be seen in most tumors, giant cells are widespread in giant cell tumor of the bone.

How can one diagnose the giant cell tumor?

Diagnosis can be made with radiological exam, computed tomography and MR following patient history and physical examination.

What are the treatment options?

Generally, surgical treatment is used. Curettage and grefting may show a recurrence rate of 50 %. High speed burr curettage, hydrogen peroxide or phenol application, filling the defect with bone sement as we used may drop the recurrence rate to 10 %. In more aggressive giant cell tumor cases, we prefer n-bloc resection of tumorous bone segment.

About the author

Prof.Dr. Seref Aktas